Scientific and Technical Advisory Council (STAC), of the Special Journals Publisher (SJP)
Scientific and Technical Advisory Council (STAC) of the Special Journals Publisher (SJP): Structure of manuscripts published in the Special Journal of Laws, Ethics and Religion [SJ- LER], by the Special Journals Publisher (SJP). Special Journal of Laws, Ethics and Religion, [SJ- LER], 2020; 1 (1):1-10
There are as many publishing guidelines as there are many journals that publishes for defined audience. Guidelines are used to harmonize the flow of research data published in various journals and the work of editors include but not limited to supervise the consistency of all papers to be published a journal or group of journals. It therefore becomes necessary that each publishing setting define their own pattern to suit their interest and to add diversity to existent publishing pattern.
Special Journals Publisher together with the Scientific and Technical Advisory Council (STAC) decided to publish this position paper to define how we do what we do the way we want to do it. We know it will answer questions which authors and reviewers may have not clearly outlined in the instructions to authors. Thus, it may be seen as the unified guidelines to help authors during the preparation of manuscripts to be submitted for publication by all journals published by Special Journals Publisher (SJP). This is one way we hope move forward in our endeavor to publish the best and the 1st database for sustainable development
In this page, Special Journals Publisher wants the full title (not more than 20 words) of the paper should be clearly stated. Special Journals Publisher expect the title to give insight on the entire work so that by looking at it, our readers will understand or be able to predict the objective and rational of the paper (1).
Authors names: These are names of those who played major role in developing the manuscript from inception till the day it is published either online or in print. Those listed as authors significantly participated in: the beginning, planning generation and analysis of data; drafting, review of manuscripts, and approval of the manuscripts before it is published (2). They must take full responsibility of the public implication of the manuscripts when it is published
The authors addresses must be clearly indicated showing institutional affiliation and full names and location of that institutions (3). This is needed to know how universally distributed are Special Journals Publisher papers published and as indirect indication of the impacts of our papers to various local communities harboring such institutions (4).
Abstract (structured) (5)
The background of the abstract should contain two or three sentences depicting the problem and the knowledge gap for which the study is based
The objective should be a sentence or a phrase that defines concisely but clearly what the manuscript intends to achieve as can be seen in the gap defined by the background above
Brief Materials and Methods
Summary statement(s) about the major methods applied to achieve the above stated objective including a mention of the name of the analytical methods used and the underpinning reasons for choice of analysis
Major findings here are briefly outlined to indicate the novelty of the work so that our readers will become educated on the outcome of the topic even before going down to the main methods section of the study. The quality of abstracts published by Special Journals Publisher is defined by its stand-alone characteristics. Standalone means its ability to convey the messages carried by the article to our readers without reference to the main text. This is important to Special Journals Publisher because abstracts may be published in some instances without the main text and many readers wants the result they can quote.
The authors are in the best position to make a one statement or two regarding the take home message of the study and a concluding statement on the overriding recommended for future studies.
Two or three key words are needed that mirrors what the study is about
Three major expectation of the introduction of manuscripts include the question or issue under investigation, the what is already known about the topic and the gap or what is not yet known about the research topic (6). The subject must be outlined in a clear and concise language devoid of any ambiguity so as to encourage readers to advance to the next paragraph or section of the study.
The rational and the importance of the subject must be established in the context of what others have done carefully making a case for which the study is justified conducting now (7). At this point the problem must be clearly identified and clearly elucidated in a simple language that easy to read and understand (8).
The Hypothesis must be clearly and briefly stated and the research questions defined to help readers understand the basis for which the objectives were formulated (9). The objectives for paper sent to Special Journals Publisher must be specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time bound (SMART) (10). The research questions must flow from the hypothesis to define the basis for the objective (11)
Material and Methods
Research design, sampling criteria (area, size, and inclusion), data collection and analysis, and any other tool or information used in the methods preliminaries
Research design (12) is expected to be the framework of research methods and selected by a researcher that allows researchers to improve on research methods that are good with the following fundamental elements: mission statement, principles of data sampling and analysis, strength, weakness, opportunities and threats (SWOT)(13). We expect a sample to be consistent, diverse and transparent. The area, size and inclusion criteria
Authors of Special Journals Publisher papers are advised to provide the detailed information about the conduct of the research to allow the work to be repeated elsewhere (14). Such details should include the setting, the type of participants involved, and the type of analysis used. Data collection tools for both quantitative and qualitative studies must be defined (15). Qualitative data collection tools may include: online forum, group interviews, and web survey (16). Quantitative data collection tools include, online software, phone, mail and face to face (17).
Special Journals Publisher support the concept of FINER (Feasible, Interesting, novel, ethical and relevant) criteria in the development of a good research question as good standard to follow (18). The FINER criteria highlight useful points that may increase the chances of developing a successful research project (19). Special Journals Publisher recommends that a good research question should specify the population of interest, be of interest to the scientific community and potentially to the public, have clinical relevance and further current knowledge in the field of study.
Whereas the FINER criteria outline the important aspects of the question in general, Special Journals Publisher recommends that a useful format to use in the development of a specific research question should include the PICOT (Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, and timing) format (20). The PICOT approach helps generate a question that aids in constructing the framework of the study and subsequently in protocol development by alluding to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and identifying the groups of patients to be included.
The methods used in Special Journals Publisher papers should define the bases for
- Manuscripts for Special Journals Publisher to provide answers to unanswered social, economic and environmental questions (21) to advance knowledge and impact the world
- Papers for Special Journals Publisher to clearly confirm the descriptive and innovative ways for early detection prevention and control of social, economic and environmental problems facing the societies (22)
- Manuscripts to outline intervening variables that poses challenges towards the achievement of our common social, economic and environmental challenges (23)
- Describe the innovations and associated extensions that could impact the achievement of social, economic and environmental goals both for us today and for our children tomorrow (24)
Data quality assessment
Data quality concept is best defined by fitness for use and to understand this better the following terms are used: correctness, completeness, concordance, plausibility and currency or timeliness. Comprehensibility, Informative sufficiency, Consistency of capture and Consistency of form (25). Data quality can best be described as ‘data that meets the criteria set by a company or organization’.
Special Journals Publisher understands that there is no universal framework of criteria for quality that can be applied to every company. For one publisher such as Special Journals Publisher, it may be of the utmost importance to have data available timely, to respond to changing market trends for example, another organization may see no problem in receiving the data a little later as long as it is one hundred per cent accurate, such as for the specifications for raw materials and semi-manufactures in a production process.
Statistical analysis and ethical considerations
Special Journals Publisher wants the statistical tools used to analyze the data to be mentioned and how it was used in the analysis is needed to help others repeat the analysis elsewhere. Statistical tools that may be used include but not limited to (26): Mean, standard deviation, regression, t-test, binomial, Chi-square goodness of fit, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test. One-way ANOVA. Kruskal Wallis test. Wilcoxon signed rank sum test,
McNemar test, One-way ANOVA with repeated measures, Repeated measures logistic regression, Factorial ANOVA, Friedman test, Ordered logistic regression, Factorial logistic regression, Correlation, Simple linear regression, Non-parametric correlation , Simple logistic regression, Multiple regression (27), Analysis of covariance, Multiple logistic regression, Discriminant analysis, One-way MANOVA (multivariate analysis of variance), Multivariate multiple regression, Canonical correlation, Factor analysis and more
Ethical considerations (28) include authorizations sought and obtained as required by law towards responsible and legal conduct of research. Informed consent, of participants must be obtained where necessary before investigations on humans as conducted. Components of informed consent include but not limited to: Liberty, cost, confidentiality, risk, and methods to be adopted in the study.
For human or animal experimental investigations (29), Special Journals Publisher recommends that authors should provide a formal review and approval, or review and waiver, by an appropriate institutional review board or ethics committee and should be properly documented
For investigations undertaken on human subjects, Special Journals Publisher wants authors to state the manner in which the informed consent was obtained from the study participants, where there is an unavoidable risk of breach of privacy. The consent should be supported by approved institutional research and ethics board so that the paper must have been both researchable and ethically correct
To submit-manuscripts, to Special Journals Publisher the authors should provide the illustrations as separate files, as well as embedded in the text file, numbered consecutively in the order of their appearance. Each figure should include a single illustration.
Tables and figures
To submit-manuscripts, to Special Journals Publisher tables and figures should be commented upon in the text and their position marked at the appropriate point. In the case of figures and tables from other publications, the source must be stated and copyright agreements provided. Special Journals Publisher does not accept Lengthy tables and so it must be avoided (30). Tables should be provided with captions, numbered consecutively and each reproduced on a separate page of the manuscript (not as a separate file!).
To submit-manuscripts, to Special Journals Publisher for rapid publication if authors feel that for reasons of general or public interest their manuscript requires more expeditious publication and quick processing through peer review.
The result of papers for Special Journals Publisher must not be represented in the discussion. The result must be compared with what others have done and the reasons for similarity and differences outlined (31).
Special Journals Publisher expect you to discuss the results that you have found in relation to both your research questions and existing knowledge. This should be your opportunity to highlight how your research reflects, differs from and extends current knowledge of the area in which you have chosen to carry out research. This section is your chance to demonstrate exactly what you know about this topic by interpreting your findings and outlining what they mean.
Special Journals Publisher recommends that at the end of the discussion authors should have outlined all of the results that that was found and and authors must have provided an explanation to back the findings. Special Journals Publisher expect you to highlight and discuss how your research has reinforced what is already known about the area you are studying or reporting.
Special Journals Publisher also recommends that authors should also outline what is new, and why there is a difference if there is, and how this compares to what is already known. Authors should outline how their result extends knowledge by showing the importance of the agreement of their result with others or confirming what others have done if they are similar (32).
Contribution to sustainable development
This section must be included to show that your article keys into the strategic development agenda of all our journals. You must therefore state clearly how your article may be linked to social, environmental or economic development of our common society. It must be easily be seen as having some impact directly or indirectly to the social, economic or environmental aspects of our society’s corporate existence (33).
Development drives the strategic national agenda and interest of all countries. Power, strength, and fame of all countries are defined by the magnitude of development in economic, social, and environmental aspects of the national economy. Therefore, all government business activities guided by policies are tailored towards measurable indices that will define criteria for monitoring and evaluation to ensure quality and accountability.
To achieve this, Special Journals Publisher seek to provide research-based data on routine bases to support the implementation of effective policies. Unfortunately, the difference between the extents of development is defined by the sustainability of those development agendas.
While there may be too many high-quality data already published and there is equally invaluable volumes of data in press yet to be published, the data already generated in various sectors of the global economy that are at various stages of development heading towards various editorial offices are unfathomable. Uncountable number of data generated are not published and may never be published even if they are very good
The truth about development is that it should take place at deferent levels and no one should stop developing. The emphasis of Special Journals Publisher is placed on the need to help less represented to attain a minimum development threshold while simultaneously encouraging the developed nations to continue developing
All papers including those for Special Journals Publisher have limitations whether or not it was outlined by the authors. Acknowledging and discussing the limitation adds to the quality of the paper because readers will understand that the authors are not ambitious and clearly define the impact of the limitation on the outcome of the study. It should show the extent of the study and opens the way for other studies to advance the research to answer more questions in the subject of research.
Limitation depends on the type and place of research and the researcher itself including the research tools making it difficult to define standard limitation for most researches. However, some general examples of are mentioned to drive home our points.
- Sample bias” or “selection bias.”occur when a sample, selected by probability does not reflect the general population or appropriate population concerned.
- Insufficient sample size for statistical measurement for valid research results
- Lack of previous research studies on the topic, is a limitation because previous studies provide the theoretical foundations for the research questions of your investigation.
- Methods/instruments/techniques used to collect the data may be the one limiting the extent to which results can be obtained
- Limited access to data, and time constraint
- Cultural, religious and other demographic limitations
Special Journals Publisher do not expect new ideas in the conclusion but future direction can be suggested after the underpinning points made point your manuscript is clearly elucidated. Stepping back to remind the reader the bigger question from the beginning of the research will help the reader to appreciate the answer provided by the study.
This section should not just be matching the results with the objectives to see if objectives have been achieved. However, Special Journals Publisher wants you to spice the cake with some advantage, arising from using some data collection tools or equipment and mentioning some outstanding issues noted in the limitation. This will educate the reader on what the study have achieved, and give insight on possible future direction
Under this section Special Journals Publisher wants you to provide a succinct advice based on your observations and findings of your paper on how future researchers should join the research to achieve the stated future direction in the conclusion section above. No recommendation should be made outside the finding of the investigation as it will undermine the quality and originality of the work
References must be listed in the numerical system (Vancouver, click here to see link for details). All references should be numbered sequentially [in square brackets] in the text and listed in the same numerical order in the reference section (Click here for details). The reference numbers must be finalized and the bibliography must be fully formatted before submission (Click here for details).
Checklist for submission
Depending on the type and nature of your research, see these checklists in the links below, which we recommend to form a guide for your manuscript before they are submitted for consideration in our journals
- Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-AnalysesPRISMA
- Strengthening The Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE)
- STARD checklist for reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy
Acquisition of funding, the collection of data, or general supervision of the research group, by themselves, the in sole charge of the clinic or department in which the article was prepared should be listed as acknowledgements.
- Tullu MS. Writing the title and abstract for a research paper: Being concise, precise, and meticulous is the key. Saudi J Anaesth. 2019 Apr;13(Suppl 1): S12-S17.
- Patience GS, Galli F, Patience PA, Boffito DC. Intellectual contributions meriting authorship: Survey results from the top cited authors across all science categories. PLoS One. 2019 Jan 16;14(1): e0198117.
- Hottenrott H, Lawson C. A first look at multiple institutional affiliations: a study of authors in Germany, Japan and the UK. Scientometrics. 2017;111(1):285-295. Epub 2017 Jan 28.
- Bachelet VC, Uribe FA, Díaz RA, Vergara AF, Bravo-Córdova F, Carrasco VA, Lizana FJ, Meza-Ducaud N, Navarrete MS. Author misrepresentation of institutional affiliations: protocol for an exploratory case study. BMJ Open. 2019 Feb 22;9(2): e 023983.
- Hartley J. Current findings from research on structured abstracts. J Med Libr Assoc. 2004 Jul;92(3):368-71.
- Armağan A. How to write an introduction section of a scientific article? Turk J Urol. 2013 Sep;39(Suppl 1):8-9.
- Chambers N, Harvey G, Mannion R, et al. Towards a framework for enhancing the performance of NHS boards: a synthesis of the evidence about board governance, board effectiveness and board development. Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library; 2013 Oct. (Health Services and Delivery Research, No. 1.6.) Chapter 1, Introduction, approach, rationale and method.Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK259407/
- National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Food and Nutrition Board; Committee on the Application of Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake Recommendations for Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2018 Jun 11. 1, Introduction and Problem Statement.Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK525674/
- Davidson D, Ellis Paine A, Glasby J, et al. Analysis of the profile, characteristics, patient experience and community value of community hospitals: a multimethod study. Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library; 2019 Jan. (Health Services and Delivery Research, No. 7.1.) Chapter 2, Research objectives, questions and methodology.Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK536258
- Mai C, Clark B. SMART: A Program to Enhance Self-Directed Learning. J Grad Med Educ. 2016 Jul;8(3):451-2.
- Farrugia P, Petrisor BA, Farrokhyar F, Bhandari M. Practical tips for surgical research: Research questions, hypotheses and objectives. Can J Surg. 2010 Aug;53(4):278-81.
- Tobi H, Kampen JK. Research design: the methodology for interdisciplinary research framework. Qual Quant. 2018;52(3):1209-1225. Epub 2017 Apr 27.
- Teoli D, Sanvictores T, An J. SWOT Analysis. [Updated 2020 Sep 7]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK537302/
- National Academy of Sciences (US), National Academy of Engineering (US) and Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Ensuring the Utility and Integrity of Research Data in a Digital Age. Ensuring the Integrity, Accessibility, and Stewardship of Research Data in the Digital Age. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2009. 3, Ensuring Access to Research Data.Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK215271/
- Sutton J, Austin Z. Qualitative Research: Data Collection, Analysis, and Management. Can J Hosp Pharm. 2015 May-Jun;68(3):226-31. doi: 10.4212/cjhp.v68i3.1456.
- Im EO, Chee W. An online forum as a qualitative research method: practical issues. Nurs Res. 2006 Jul-Aug;55(4):267-73.
- Wyatt JC. When to use web-based surveys. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2000 Jul-Aug;7(4):426-9.
- Fandino W. Formulating a good research question: Pearls and pitfalls. Indian J Anaesth. 2019 Aug;63(8):611-616.
- Farrugia P, Petrisor BA, Farrokhyar F, Bhandari M. Practical tips for surgical research: Research questions, hypotheses and objectives. Can J Surg. 2010 Aug;53(4):278-81.
- Riva JJ, Malik KM, Burnie SJ, Endicott AR, Busse JW. What is your research question? An introduction to the PICOT format for clinicians. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2012 Sep;56(3):167-71.
- Rudd MA, Beazley KF, Cooke SJ, Fleishman E, Lane DE, Mascia MB, Roth R, Tabor G, Bakker JA, Bellefontaine T, Berteaux D, Cantin B, Chaulk KG, Cunningham K, Dobell R, Fast E, Ferrara N, Findlay CS, Hallstrom LK, Hammond T, Hermanutz L, Hutchings JA, Lindsay KE, Marta TJ, Nguyen VM, Northey G, Prior K, Ramirez-Sanchez S, Rice J, Sleep DJ, Szabo ND, Trottier G, Toussaint JP, Veilleux JP. Generation of priority research questions to inform conservation policy and management at a national level. Conserv Biol. 2011 Jun;25(3):476-84
- Institute of Medicine (US) and National Research Council (US) National Cancer Policy Board; Curry SJ, Byers T, Hewitt M, editors. Fulfilling the Potential of Cancer Prevention and Early Detection. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2003. 10, Research Trends and Opportunities.
- Bourgois P, Holmes SM, Sue K, Quesada J. Structural Vulnerability: Operationalizing the Concept to Address Health Disparities in Clinical Care. Acad Med. 2017 Mar;92(3):299-307.
- National Research Council (US) Committee on Comparative National Innovation Policies: Best Practice for the 21st Century; Wessner CW, Wolff AW, editors. Rising to the Challenge: U.S. Innovation Policy for the Global Economy. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2012. 1, The Innovation Challenge.
- Lau F. Chapter 16 Methods for Data Quality Studies. In: Lau F, Kuziemsky C, editors. Handbook of eHealth Evaluation: An Evidence-based Approach [Internet]. Victoria (BC): University of Victoria; 2017 Feb 27.
- Ali Z, Bhaskar SB. Basic statistical tools in research and data analysis. Indian J Anaesth. 2016 Sep;60(9):662-669. Erratum in: Indian J Anaesth. 2016 Oct;60 (10 ):790.
- Sperandei S. Understanding logistic regression analysis. Biochem Med (Zagreb). 2014 Feb 15;24(1):12-8.
- Yip C, Han NR, Sng BL. Legal and ethical issues in research. Indian J Anaesth. 2016 Sep;60(9):684-688.
- Rall DP. Relevance of animal experiments to humans. Environ Health Perspect. 1979 Oct;32:297-300.
- Ng KH, Peh WC. Preparing effective tables. Singapore Med J. 2009;50(2):117-8; quiz 119.
- Şanlı Ö, Erdem S, Tefik T. How to write a discussion section? Turk J Urol. 2013 Sep;39(Suppl 1):20-4.
- Nicolini D, Powell J, Korica M. Keeping knowledgeable: how NHS chief executive officers mobilise knowledge and information in their daily work. Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library; 2014 Aug. (Health Services and Delivery Research, No. 2.26.) Chapter 5, Discussion of research findings.
- Nunes AR, Lee K, O’Riordan T. The importance of an integrating framework for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals: the example of health and well-being. BMJ Global Health 2016;1:e000068.
Submit your papers for publication to Special Journal of Laws, Ethics and Religion [SJ- LER] online below https://sjlaws.spparenet.org/submit/
or by email attachment to us at firstname.lastname@example.org